Varicose veins of the small pelvis in women

varicose veins of the small pelvis

Varicose veins of the small pelvis in women develop mainly in the fertile age. Pathology negatively affects the condition of the uterus and appendages, causes unpleasant symptoms, and in advanced cases causes complications that adversely affect the quality of life of a young woman. The disease is difficult to diagnose, as it is often accompanied by symptoms that develop with common gynecological pathologies, such as inflammation in the organs of the genitourinary system, hormonal disorders, etc. a complete gynecological examination, but also an assessment of the condition and functioning of the pelvic veins. If you have a suspicion of varicose veins of the small pelvis and you need high-quality diagnostics and professional medical care, contact the clinic, where experienced highly qualified specialists will help identify and successfully treat such a serious disease.

Classification of varicose veins of the small pelvis

Varicose veins of the pelvic veins is a pathological process that is accompanied by a weakening of the venous walls of the pelvic organs, which in turn contributes to the development of ectasia. Pathology can develop in 2 forms:

  • varicose veins of the vulva and perineum;
  • venous congestion syndrome.

In most cases, both of these forms cause and support the progression of each other. Isolated perineal and vulvar varicose veins develop against the backdrop of blood reflux through the saphenofemoral fistula with simultaneous damage to the external pudendal vein and inflow of the great vein. Such a pathology is often found in pregnant women and develops against the background of compression of the iliac and inferior vena cava by a growing fetus and an increasing uterus.

Depending on the nature of the severity of the disease, there are 3 stages of development of the pathological process:

  1. First. The diameter of the dilated veins does not exceed 0. 5 cm, the vessels have a tortuous course.
  2. Second. The diameter of the affected vessels increases to 0. 6 - 1 cm. The lesion can be total in nature or affect parametric vessels, myometrial acrobial veins, and ovarian plexus.
  3. Third. The diameter of the affected vessels exceeds 1 cm, serious complications develop.

Taking into account the nature of development, RVMT can be of the following types:

  • Primary. It develops against the background of congenital or acquired valvular insufficiency of the ovarian veins. Common provoking factors of this type of pathology: complications during pregnancy and delivery, heavy physical exertion, the use of hormonal drugs, etc.
  • Secondary. It develops against the background of progressive gynecological diseases, such as tumors, endometriosis, etc.

Causes

Varicose veins of the small pelvis often occur for the following reasons:

  • Connective tissue dysplasia. A congenital condition characterized by a decrease in the content of certain types of collagen, which contributes to a decrease in the strength of the vessel walls.
  • hereditary predisposition. If a woman had cases of such a vascular disease in her family, it is highly likely that, with a combination of adverse factors, she will also face RVMT.
  • Physical inactivity. Due to the lack of physical activity necessary for the body and a sedentary lifestyle, venous outflow is disturbed in the small pelvis, which in turn causes the development of stagnant processes.
  • Pregnancy. As pregnancy progresses, the uterus gradually increases in size, squeezing the surrounding tissues, including the presenting veins, which sometimes leads to the development of varicose veins.
  • Obesity. With excess weight, the load on the vessels of the small pelvis increases significantly.
  • Varicose veins of the lower extremities and hemorrhoids. VRVMT in this case develops against the background of a systemic lesion of the connective tissue.
  • Hormonal disorder. Hormonal failure, in which progesterone is produced in excess in the female body, has a weakening effect on the tone of the veins of the small pelvis, which in turn leads to the development of varicose veins.

Women who:

  • abuse bad habits: alcohol, smoking;
  • do not live an intimate life and do not get an orgasm;
  • encountered gynecological complications during pregnancy and childbirth;
  • underwent surgery on the abdominal cavity;
  • have serious pelvic injuries;
  • forced to undergo hormone replacement therapy.

Symptoms

Quite often, varicose veins of the small pelvis do not cause any suspicious symptoms. For many years, a woman may be unaware of her serious illness. In the early stages, the symptoms are non-specific, so RVMT is often mistaken for some kind of gynecological pathology, which has a similar clinical picture. Symptoms that should alert and become the reason for a comprehensive examination of not only the organs of the reproductive and urinary systems, but also the veins of the small pelvis:

  • Non-menstrual pain in the lower abdomen. The intensity of the pain syndrome depends on the degree of damage to the veins and the prevalence of the pathological process. At the earliest stage, the pain is mild, it can radiate to the lower back, the sacrum. In advanced cases, the pain is intense, excruciating, radiating to the abdomen, perineum, lower back.
  • Severe premenstrual syndrome. The woman's condition deteriorates sharply in the 2nd phase of the cycle, during menstruation, intense pain, an increase in the amount of discharge, and dysmenorrhea are possible.
  • Dyspareunia. Discomfort and pain can disturb directly during intercourse, and after its completion.
  • Problems with urination. Going to the toilet becomes more frequent, when a woman tries to urinate, she experiences pain and discomfort.

Diagnosis of varicose veins of the small pelvis

The doctor will be able to make a preliminary diagnosis even at the stage of the primary study, based on the patient's complaints and the presence of such characteristic signs:

  • expansion of superficial veins in the vulva and perineum;
  • cyanosis of the vaginal walls;
  • pain on palpation of the abdomen.

However, to confirm the diagnosis of RVMT, one primary examination and palpation will not be enough. Therefore, the patient is given a referral for a comprehensive diagnostic examination, including the following procedures:

  • Combined ultrasound transabdominal and transvaginal method. It makes it possible to identify organic pathology, using color Doppler mapping to detect the localization of the pathological process.
  • Dopplerography. Allows the doctor to assess the state of the vascular and venous system of the MT organs.
  • Tomography. Computer or magnetic resonance imaging with the use of a contrast agent allows you to examine the veins in detail, their location, and see the expansion zones.
  • Extrauterine phlebography. Allows you to determine the localization and prevalence of the pathological process, assess the state of the valvular systems, detect blood clots.

For the purpose of differential diagnosis or with insufficient information content of the above methods, they resort to diagnostic laparoscopy.

Treatment of varicose veins of the small pelvis

Treatment of varicose veins of the small pelvis can be conservative or surgical. If there are no pronounced changes in the veins and the condition does not threaten the patient's health, individual drug therapy is prescribed, the main tasks of which are to improve the condition of the veins and eliminate unpleasant symptoms. For these purposes, the following groups of drugs are used:

  • Venotonics. The mechanism of their action is aimed at correcting disorders in the venous circulation, which is the main cause of the development of varicose veins. Systemic venotonics contribute to the healing of blood vessels throughout the body, as they affect the venous system as a whole.
  • Drugs that have a blood-thinning effect. Reduce the density of blood, prevent the formation of blood clots.
  • Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Relieve inflammation, eliminate unpleasant symptoms.
  • Vitamin and mineral complexes. Help to strengthen loans and reduce their fragility.

Throughout the course of drug therapy, doctors advise wearing compression underwear, which provides an effect similar to bandaging with an elastic bandage. Such underwear allows you to distribute external pressure in accordance with the physiological characteristics of the patient's body. With regular wear, it helps to normalize blood circulation, without causing changes in the skin and local metabolic disorders. In order for compression underwear to bring maximum benefit, it is necessary to choose products together with your doctor.

If the disease is advanced and conservative therapy is unable to stop its progression, the doctor, together with the patient, considers options for surgical intervention. Modern methods of minimally invasive surgery include:

  • Sclerobtilation. The essence of the technique is the introduction of a sclerosant into the affected veins, which causes blockage and further resorption of the veins. All manipulations are performed under angiographic control.
  • Embolization of the ovarian veins. This surgical method for the treatment of VRVMT involves the introduction of embolization coils into a vein through a catheter. This allows you to completely clog the blood flow in the dilated veins. The procedure is performed under angiographic control.

Prevention

Prevention of RVMT involves the observance of such simple rules:

  • lead a healthy, active lifestyle;
  • get rid of bad habits;
  • normalize weight;
  • with a sedentary lifestyle, connect moderate physical activity, exercise therapy;
  • improve nutrition by diversifying the diet with fresh fruits and vegetables;
  • with a tendency to varicose veins of the small pelvis, wear compression underwear, selected together with the attending physician;
  • if the disease is caused by excessive physical exertion, it is necessary to try to limit them to the maximum;
  • undergo hormonal treatment under the strict supervision of a doctor;
  • for the purpose of prevention, once a year, undergo a comprehensive medical examination, which will help to identify any pathology in the early stages, cure in a timely manner and avoid complications.

Complications

The risk of complications can be minimized if the disease is diagnosed in time and treated immediately. In the absence of adequate therapy, such dangerous consequences develop:

  • thrombosis;
  • thromboembolism;
  • thrombophlebitis.

Other common complications:

  • hormonal disorders;
  • dysfunctional uterine bleeding;
  • chronic inflammatory processes in the organs of the reproductive and urinary system;
  • infertility.

Varicose veins of the small pelvis are often exacerbated in women during pregnancy, which poses a serious threat to the health of not only the expectant mother, but also her child. Women with progressive vascular pathology have a high chance of giving birth to a premature baby with underweight, underdeveloped internal organs. During childbirth with varicose veins, damage to the thinned walls of blood vessels can occur, which is fraught with profuse, uncontrolled bleeding, which can be fatal. Therefore, if a woman is diagnosed with RVMT during pregnancy, the doctor will advise resorting to a surgical method of delivery - a caesarean section.

The cost of treating varicose veins of the small pelvis

The cost of treatment of varicose veins of the small pelvis for each patient is calculated individually. Factors such as:

  • the degree of neglect and prevalence of pathology;
  • the presence of associated complications;
  • the most effective method of therapy is conservative or surgical;
  • need for complementary therapies.

To get more detailed information about the cost of treating varicose veins of the pelvis, you should contact a specialist who will determine the stage of the disease and advise on treatment.

11.02.2022