Varicose veins of the lower extremities (VBLK)

When people see a diagnosis of VDVL in a medical book, they often do not understand it. In fact, this term hides varicose veins of the lower extremities. This disease is characterized by lengthening of blood vessels and their further deformation. This pathology is very common. About 76% of residents suffer from various degrees of varicose veins of the legs. Next, we'll look at the symptoms of the disease and how to prevent it from developing.

Causes of the onset of the disease

The disease can be primary or secondary. It all starts with a failure of the venous valves. It can be congenital or acquired. With congenital insufficiency, varicose veins are manifested in childhood. Acquired deficiency develops against the background of exposure to pathogenic factors. These include:

  • hard physical labor;
  • prolonged stay in one position;
  • period of hormonal changes;
  • prolonged use of inappropriate hormonal drugs;
  • pregnancy.

Bad habits should not be ruled out either. Under the influence of ethanol and nicotine, the vascular walls become more fragile, which accelerates the development of VBNK. Some doctors believe that this disease is common to all people, since due to upright posture on the veins and the skeleton, an enormous load falls. Other experts do not support this theory and believe that the patients themselves are to blame for the formation of varicose veins.

causes of varicose veins of the extremities

Symptoms of varicose veins

The manifestations of the disease depend on its stage. At the first stage, patients are concerned only with the visual manifestations of the disease. People develop spider veins, veins begin to appear under the skin after exercise or at the end of the day. Some patients complain of a feeling of heaviness in the legs. Symptoms of stage II venous dilatation:

  • increased fatigue;
  • strong feeling of heaviness in the legs;
  • feet and lower leg swell during short walks;
  • cramps of legs and feet are observed at night.

In the second stage of the disease, visual manifestations become more pronounced. In the standing position, the veins are very pronounced and the edema is noticeable. If the patient stands a little, then the symptoms become less or completely disappear. The third stage of varicose veins is determined by the pronounced expansion of the veins. The skin becomes drier, trophic ulcers often occur, which require the use of special medications for healing. The person constantly experiences pain in the limbs.

Diagnosis of varicose veins

Usually the phlebologist notices the first symptoms of the disease during a routine examination of the patient's legs. After examining the patient's complaints, the doctor may resort to instrumental examination of the veins. The diagnosis of varicose veins of VBNK and the diagnosis are made in 90% of cases based on the results of ultrasound. Of course, the patient will need to pass biochemical and clinical blood tests. If ultrasound gives questionable results, then the patient is referred for the following type of diagnostics:

  • duplex scanning;
  • computed tomography with contrast;
  • radiopaque phlebography;
  • occlusal plethysmography;
  • rheovasography.
diagnostic options for varicose veins of the lower extremities

Effective Treatment

Therapy for varicose veins is multifaceted. This is not to say that only one way can help a person cope with an illness. Treatment of varicose veins begins with taking medications and using creams, ointments or gels. It is also recommended to wear compression hosiery. If these methods fail, patients are referred for physiotherapy and surgery.

Elastic Compression Therapy

Knitted underwear with a certain degree of pressure can be worn even without varicose veins in order to reduce the load on blood vessels. If you have been diagnosed with this ailment, then be sure to buy specialized stockings or bandages. The degree of compression should be determined by the phlebologist. Also, instead of medical underwear, you can use elastic bandages, but this is not very convenient, since you have to wear them all the time.

Taking Medications

Medication is rarely effective in the latter stages of the disease. By itself, it will not be able to prevent the further development of the disease, but it contributes to the restoration of blood vessels. Doctors often prescribe the following types of drugs to patients:

  • Toning veins. They contain substances that are involved in the construction of the vascular wall.
  • Improving microcirculation. Drugs in this group make blood and other nutrients move faster through the vessels.
  • Preventing blood clots. These drugs help the liver break down bad cholesterol.
  • Pain relief. These drugs have a cooling effect on the legs.

Carrying out sclerotherapy

Specialized substances are injected into the affected vein, which injure it from the inside. As a result, over time, it contracts and turns into a tendon. If the vessel is severely stretched, then this method may not be effective, since the medicine will dissolve and the vein will again enter the normal bloodstream. In addition, this technique is contraindicated for allergy sufferers.

Hirudotherapy

One of the reasons for the development of varicose veins is "thick" blood. Leeches will help get rid of this problem. Hirudotherapy should not be carried out for allergy sufferers and people suffering from anemia. As for the procedure itself, 3-4 leeches are attached to the site of the venous node, and the rest are placed along the entire length of the vein. The procedure is carried out once every 7-14 days. Often it is impossible to come to hirudotherapy, as the patient may develop anemia.

Physiotherapy

The patient is exposed to specialized medical devices that improve blood microcirculation and increase the tone of the vascular walls. This is both traditional electrophoresis and segmental barotherapy. This also includes massage and the use of low frequency magnets. The type of physiotherapy that is suitable for the patient should be selected by the attending physician based on the results of the examination.

physiotherapy for varicose veins of the lower extremities

Surgical treatment

Surgery for varicose veins of the lower extremities is one of the most effective ways to eliminate the disease. In comparison with the conservative method, the surgical method allows you to completely get rid of the damaged vessel and stop the further progression of the disease. Surgical Methods:

  • phlebectomy;
  • miniflebectomy;
  • endoscopic vein dissection;
  • radiofrequency ablation;
  • stripping (short or atraumatic);
  • laser coagulation.
laser treatment of varicose veins

Proper nutrition

Food should be low in calories, but at the same time rich in useful vitamins. The patient can eat all types of meat, but only stewed, baked or boiled. It is not recommended to fry food in oil. It is advisable that the main part of the diet consisted of fruits and vegetables. They contain many vitamins and minerals that are beneficial for cellular metabolism.

nutritional rules for varicose veins

Spa treatment

A visit to specialized centers is shown to all people with any chronic ailments. This list includes patients with VBLK. In case of vascular lesions, it is best to choose resorts where there is radon water. If there are changes in tissue trophism, then you should go to a sanatorium with nitrogen or hydrogen sulfide sources. After the surgical intervention, the patient can go to the sanitary-resort treatment no earlier than 2 months later.

spa treatment of varicose veins

Possible complications after treatment

Side effects differ depending on the type of therapy chosen. If there was a surgical intervention involving the removal or cauterization of veins, then the patient experiences severe pain in the limbs for some time. With sclerotherapy, one of the disadvantages may be resorption of the substance and the inclusion of the vein in the normal bloodstream. Then therapy simply will not work.

If there is no effect after treatment, the disease will begin to develop according to the standard pattern. The patient will develop trophic ulcers on the affected areas of the leg. Then the active formation of blood clots will begin, which will lead to thrombophlebitis. If the cholesterol plaque comes off, then the patient may be faced with a complete blockage of the vein at best. In the worst situation, the blood clot will enter the bloodstream and then into the pulmonary artery. This can lead to disability or death of the patient.

Prevention and prevention of recurrence

Preventing the development of varicose veins is somewhat easier than treating it. General recommendations are the same for all patients: it is necessary to do physical therapy, get rid of bad habits, revise your diet and, in general, reduce the load on your legs. If you cannot adhere to all the tips, then at least try to increase physical activity and relieve unnecessary stress from the limbs with the help of special accessories.

Physiotherapy exercises

The exercises are pretty simple. This is an ordinary birch tree and scissors. The patient can make arbitrary leg swings while lying on the floor. Stretching has a positive effect on the condition of the veins with varicose veins. It helps to improve tissue trophism and prevents the development of osteochondrosis. But exercises with free weights (dumbbells and barbells over 10-15 kg) cannot be performed. They create additional static stress, which is very harmful for blood vessels.

People with varicose veins can do swimming and stretching. Staying in the water relieves stress on the joints, and deep stretching will help improve blood flow to the pelvic organs and limbs. It is advisable for the instructor to develop a specific set of exercises for the patient. Patients with VBNK should not visit saunas and baths.

physiotherapy exercises for varicose veins of the extremities

Healthy lifestyle

Quitting alcohol and smoking is a sure step towards preventing the development of varicose veins of the legs. The patient must establish a mode of work and rest. It is recommended that you stretch every day. You should also minimize the influence of adverse factors on your body, that is, try to avoid stress, wear comfortable clothes, and so on. It is advisable to travel everywhere on foot. A healthy person must walk at least 7 km per day.

Reducing leg loads

Many patients confuse a reduction in vein load with complete elimination of physical activity. These two points are completely unrelated. Exercise should be present in the patient's life. It is advisable to do stretching every day, but the overall load on the legs can be reduced. This is done in several ways:

  1. Getting rid of bad habits. Cross-legged is not allowed. Also, do not sit on a chair with one leg under you. In both cases, you create additional stress on the vessels.
  2. Wearing comfortable clothing and accessories. You shouldn't buy jeans 2 sizes smaller than what you currently have, or try to walk in shoes with a narrow toe when the foot itself is wide. In the first place, a person with a predisposition to varicose veins should have their own health.
  3. Using compression hosiery. Today, in pharmacies and specialized stores, you can find different types of medical linen. People with a predisposition to VBNK are recommended to replace standard tights, knee-highs and socks with compression ones. Visually, they practically do not differ from ordinary ones, but in the process they reduce the load on the vessels.
  4. The use of special accessories for relaxation. Various massage pads and applicators help relieve stress. Orthopedic and massage pillows can be used not only during work, but also after sleep.
  5. Massage. You can do it yourself or entrust yourself to an experienced massage therapist. This procedure is useful only in the initial stages of the disease. In the second and third stages of varicose veins, massage cannot be done.

In general, the development of VBLK can be prevented if a comprehensive approach to the treatment of the disease is taken. Do not think that medications or exercises alone will help restore the vessels to their former elasticity. It is necessary to follow all the doctor's prescriptions and, if necessary, do not fear the surgical removal of damaged veins.

10.03.2021