Varicose veins

causes, symptoms and treatment of varicose veins

Varicose veins are a pathological process in the human body, expressed in the defeat of the veins (the diameter of the lumen increases, the wall becomes thinner, "nodes" are formed - aneurysm-like local enlargements.

Stages of varicose veins

In medicine today it is customary to distinguish 4 stages of the disease:

  • 1 initial stage:is characterized mainly by the presence of subcutaneous (vascular networks), intradermal varicose veins; segmental varicose veins may be observed; with varicose veins of 1 degree, there is completely no pathological violation of hemodynamics;
  • Stage 2:at this stage there is segmental varicose veins associated with small saphenous veins; grade 2 disease is accompanied by a decrease in the function of perforators and valves;
  • Stage 3:Stage of large vein lesions against the background of hemodynamic disturbances;
  • Stage 4:The nature of the disease corresponds to stage 3 of the development of pathology in men or women, but there is a deep lesion of the veins.

The causes of varicose veins

The main causes of varicose veins in the extremities, or other parts of the body, are lifestyle and heredity. In the latter case, a person has weak vessel walls from birth, which easily stretch under load (the lumen expands), pass liquid through themselves (contributes to the formation of puffiness).

Obesity can contribute to the development of pathology. Excess weight is the cause of constant excessive pressure on the walls of the veins, which often provokes deformation of the vessels. The causes of the onset of the disease are hormonal changes associated with a decrease in wall tone (for example, when taking contraceptives, during pregnancy).

The development of the disease can cause increased intra-abdominal pressure, which is observed in a person with persistent cough, prostate adenoma, chronic constipation. It is dangerous by the occurrence of excessive pressure on the vessels, provoking them to varicose expansion. The result is hemorrhoids, varicose veins on the legs, varicocele.

The age of a person is also one of the possible causes of the onset of the disease. During their service in the body, the vessels lose their elasticity and may not withstand the pressure in them. The development of the disease is often observed in patients with deep vein thrombosis. At risk are those people who develop or congenital anomalies in the structure of the veins that provoke increased chronic intravenous pressure (for example, arteriovenous fistulas).

Symptoms of varicose veins

In the early stages, the disease can proceed without showing any symptoms. The appearance of blood vessels on the surface of the skin at this time does not cause any inconvenience to a person (maybe only cosmetic).

Over time, people begin to notice swelling, heaviness and fatigue appear in their legs. This is followed by a period in which the veins begin to be felt well, protrude above the skin surface; under the latter, knotty formations appear.

Violation of trophism leads to hyperpigmentation, cracks, dry skin, eczema, varicose dermatitis, ulceration. When a period of serious circulatory disorders occurs, convulsions may occur, trophic ulcers appear on the body, which are difficult to treat.

Swelling of the legs, which, as a rule, is always a consequence of varicose veins, thickens over time, becomes bumpy in appearance and to the touch.

Diagnosis of varicose veins

The disease is easily diagnosed on the extremities, especially in the later stages, when characteristic changes visible on the surface of the skin occur. Diagnosis at earlier stages and with pathology of internal veins is today performed by triplex angioscanning, Doppler ultrasound, and ultrasound. According to their results, the doctor judges the degree of development of the disease, prescribes treatment.

The most complete results are obtained with angioscanning, which evaluates all veins in the human body. This method is used in 95% . . . 98% of all cases of the disease, with some of its relapses, radioisotope scanning is also used.

Treatment of varicose veins

Therapy includes an integrated approach to the treatment of the disease:

  • angioprotectors, phlebotropic drugs are prescribed (to strengthen the vascular walls, protect it from damage, increase its elasticity);
  • in addition to medication, the patient is prescribed physiotherapy exercises that stimulate blood flow in the veins, helping to prevent blood stagnation;
  • it is suggested to wear special compression hosiery (it helps to push the blood along the vascular bed);
  • procedures include phlebosclerosing disease treatment;
  • surgical methods are used;
  • folk methods are recommended to correct varicose veins;
  • massage and pneumocompress therapy are performed.

An integrated approach to the fight against varicose veins allows you to exert the necessary influence on the pathogenesis, symptoms of the disease. As a result, the condition of the patients is noticeably improved, and complete recovery from the disease is possible. The use of surgical techniques is possible at stages that are not amenable to therapeutic or other sparing treatment - the decision is made by the phlebologist.

Treatment of varicose veins in pregnant and lactating women

Varicose veins in women during pregnancy and when feeding a baby do not always indicate a disease. To treat them or not is determined by a phlebologist, with whom compulsory consultation is needed during such periods of life.

If urgent action is needed, the best treatment options for nursing mothers and pregnant women are compression hosiery, an active lifestyle, or bandaging with elastic bandages.

The lactation period is characterized by an increase in the load on the veins, so you should not expect a great effect from the treatment measures taken during this period. It is better to carry out intensive measures, necessary operations after the end of breastfeeding.

Sclerotherapy, which is now preferred by many patients for treatment, is also ineffective for pregnant and breastfeeding women. It is better to interrupt the procedures and continue them after.


The need for surgery, as the most effective treatment, is determined only by a doctor on the basis of a special examination. Usually, this decision is made with advanced forms of the disease: for example, if the legs are covered with bulging veins, similar to thick cords with knots.

Most often, during surgery, damaged areas of superficial veins are removed; deep vessels are never operated on. The blood flow through the removed veins stops and is compensated by deeply located vessels. According to experts, blood circulation is not disturbed, but even improves.

Today, minimally invasive techniques are used in vein surgeries, which allow minimizing trauma to the human body. One of them is short stripping, which involves a thorough examination of the vessels and the removal of only those areas of it that are affected by varicose veins.

The leading clinics practice cryophlebectomy, laser treatment of the disease by the method of intravascular coagulation. The first operation involves inserting a cryoprobe inside the vein through one incision in the groin and removing the frozen vessel while pulling it out. The second involves the introduction of a laser light-emitting diode into a vein and exposure of the vessel walls to laser radiation. The result is instant obliteration; the procedure itself is within a few minutes, and the patient receives a minimum of trauma.

Cream for varicose veins

An integrated approach to the treatment of varicose veins allows you to most effectively fight this disease. For this, pills, ointments, injections, gels and creams are used.

Special therapeutic creams for varicose veins are used in courses; their duration is determined individually by the phlebologist. These remedies for varicose veins are applied only at night or, if indicated, three times a day. After two weeks of application, the veins on the legs become smaller, the "stars" from the vessels practically disappear, the skin becomes more well-groomed and beautiful.

Compression underwear for varicose veins

Wearing compression hosiery is one of the measures that help fight disease. The principle of its positive effect on the body is to create pressure of different strengths on different parts of the limbs.

The maximum compression (100% possible for the type of underwear) on the stockings is done above the ankle, which helps the blood rise more easily. Higher pressure is less; its difference helps to move stagnant blood, helping to eliminate or alleviate the symptoms of the disease.

Compression underwear is made of elastic material: lycra, cotton, microfiber, nylon. It has an aesthetic appearance, no visible seams. Clothes are breathable, pleasantly caressing the skin, hypoallergenic. The period of preservation of the medicinal properties of the products is up to six months.

Treatment of varicose veins with traditional medicine

This unpleasant disease has long been treated with folk remedies. In this case, the affected parts of the body acquire an aesthetic appearance, the veins are strengthened, which excludes the manifestation of the disease in the future.

Usually, folk remedies are used simultaneously with the removal of varicose veins with medications. Here are some recommendations for using the forces of nature in the fight against this disease:

  • herbs: wormwood flowers and leaves are ground (you can use a blender); the resulting slurry in a 1: 1 ratio is mixed with sour milk; the resulting mixture, wrapped in gauze, is applied to the bumps and "cobwebs" on the skin;
  • home treatment is possible with red tomatoes - they are cut into slices, which are placed on problem areas of the skin; hold, fixed with a bandage, for 3 . . . 4 hours.
  • tomato juice - from effective helpers in the fight against varicose veins; they drink it at least a glass every day:
  • helps to relieve heaviness in the legs, pain, taking on an empty stomach every morning a teaspoon of ground nutmeg.

Prevention of varicose veins

A disease is easier to prevent than to cure. You need to keep this in mind and follow these tips:

  • shoes should not have high (5… 6 cm) heels; it should be comfortable and convenient for you;
  • move more; do not take an elevator - it is better to walk to your floor;
  • do simple exercises all the time: move your feet in different directions; alternate raising to toes with lowering to heels;
  • if possible, swim more, ride a bike, jog;
  • don't pass, try to keep your weight;
  • prevention of varicose veins includes the requirement to quit smoking;
  • massage your feet with your fingers and palms more often;

Contraindications in case of illness: weightlifting, carrying weights (for example, lifting bags to the floors).