Causes of varicose veins of the legs, its symptoms and features of elimination
Pathology can affect any part of the body where there are large veins (stomach, esophagus, male testicles), but is most common varicose veins of the lower extremities. Talk about the causes of varicose veins, methods of diagnosis and elimination.
Varicose veins is an irreversible dilatation due to disorders of the valves involved in the mechanism of blood circulation veins of the lower extremities. Under normal contraction and relaxation of the muscles she energetically moving up from valve to valve, but the expansion of the vein valves no longer close and the blood flow slows down, resulting in a number of clinical symptoms.
Subsequently, the venous walls become weak and thin, and they remain so even after the improvement of blood circulation.
According to statistics, the symptoms of varicose veins in the legs today suffers every tenth man and every third woman aged 30-40 years. Among the countries-leaders on the prevalence of disease are the developed countries of Europe, where it is diagnosed in 30-40% of the population; less often varicose veins found in Africa and Asia (about 0.1%).
Why appears the risk factors
The exact cause of the disease is not known, but most professionals leans towards the hereditary theory: the person in whose family there were cases of varicose, are at risk. Also the factors, provoking the development of the pathology, include:
- sex. Women are affected by varicose veins to a greater extent than men – this is due to increasing venous load during pregnancy and childbirth, and hormonal drugs;
- bad habits and excess weight. Smoking, excessive fatty foods and alcohol have a negative impact on the blood circulation in the body, increasing the load on the veins and can cause the violations;
- working condition. People who because of the peculiarities of his profession are forced to stand or to sit for long periods of time (hairdressers, sellers, waiters, office workers) suffer from this disease more often than others;
- excessive physical activity. Another category of people that is at risk of developing varicose veins – those engaged in heavy physical labor or some power sports (e.g. weightlifting);
- uncomfortable clothes or shoes. Tight, constraining clothing and shoes with high heels also contributes to poor venous blood flow.
Most frequently (in 75-80% of cases) the disease affects the trunk and branches of the great saphenous vein in 5-10% – small saphenous, and 7-10% of patients, the process involved both veins.
The clinical course of varicose of the lower extremities experts distinguish two forms and four groups.
- while the descending process extends down from the top of the large femoral vein, beginning at its mouth;
- rising – the disease begins on the foot and is caused by disruption of the valvular apparatus of deep veins.
- subcutaneous or inside the skin pathology, not burdened venous discharge;
- segmental reflux in the superficial and perforating veins;
- common with venous reflux (superficial and perforating veins);
- extension with reflux in deep veins.
According to the degree of venous insufficiency there are four main stages of varicose veins:
- 0 – symptoms may be present, but it is not defined, diagnostic methods;
- I – this stage is characterized by transient swelling, the syndrome of "heavy legs", the appearance of "spider veins;
- II – the emergence of persistent edema that appear in the evening time, the change in color of skin, eczema;
- III – the presence of trophic ulcers, including non-healing.
The danger and complications
The risk to the health and life of the patient not the disease itself but the complications it causes. These include malnutrition of the skin, which may form trophic ulcers, erysipelas, inflammation, as well as the most dangerous complication is thrombophlebitis. It leads to thrombosis, causing blood clots, breaking away from the venous walls, can interrupt the function of internal organs, and in the most severe cases cause death of the patient.
In addition, the dilated vessels with a thinning of the walls are exposed to the risk of mechanical damage, can cause serious bleeding.
The first symptoms are heaviness and fatigue in the legs, which usually appear in the evening and decrease in the supine position. Vienna acquires a cyanotic hue and are highlighted on the surface of the skin, there are "spider veins" (spider's web of dilated capillaries seen through the skin), and the characteristic feature is that the venous pattern disappears, if the limb to be raised above (for example, put on a chair).
Over time, varicose veins are becoming more pronounced, there is a form of small nodules or large conglomerates.
Unpleasant symptoms intensify and bother patients even in the night, appears swelling of soft tissues, most often in feet, legs and ankles as well as a sense of fullness in the legs and cramps in the calf muscles.
In the absence of adequate treatment of varicose veins progresses, the skin becomes dry, it appears seal and dark spots, and eventually sores. With the development of thrombophlebitis of the veins become bright red, the cord is prominent and painfully tight on palpation.
When should I contact the doctor?
Many people ignore the first signs of varicose, taking them to the usual fatigue. This greatly complicates treatment of the disease and can lead to very serious consequences, so the doctor should be contacted immediately after the onset of symptoms – constant feeling of fatigue and of heavy legs, discoloration of the veins and the skin, swelling, "vascular asterisks", etc.
Often, for a clearer picture of the disease patients need to see other specialists: therapist, gynecologist, vascular surgeon.
The diagnosis "varicose veins of the lower limbs" pose after a comprehensive examination, which includes:
- General analysis of blood the number of erythrocytes, thrombocytes, leukocytes and hemoglobin level it is possible to judge violations of blood clotting and inflammation;
- ultrasound is the most efficient way to identify diseased vessels and areas of the veins;
- rheovasography carried out in order to determine the malnutrition of the tissues with blood , which can be used to determine the stage of the disease;
- phlebography, which in the vein of the injected contrast agent, and then with the help of x-ray apparatus estimates the state of the venous system;
- physiological samples provide insight on the functioning of the valve apparatus superficial veins.
In the initial stages of varicose veins it can be dealt with conservative methods like medication, the use of ointments and gels, wearing compression underwear, moderate exercise. For the correction of cosmetic defects in patients can be recommended invasive surgery or laser treatment.
In more advanced cases, varicose veins can be removed only by surgical intervention, and its form is chosen individually for each specific case.
Predictions and prevention measures
As varicose veins is an irreversible process, the total recovery in this case, however. But with timely diagnosis, adequate treatment and prevention patients can completely get rid of unpleasant symptoms and lead a normal life.
Among the preventive measures of varicose veins include healthy lifestyle, eating right and avoiding harmful habits. People, compelled by their professional activities for a long time to be in the same position, it is recommended to avoid crossing limbs, from time to time to perform simple exercises, bend and extend your leg and make a light massage to improve circulation.
In my spare time as often as possible to make walks in the fresh air and engage in moderate physical activity.
Ladies who follow the fashion or business dress code and constantly walking in shoes with heels should from time to time to change them for more comfortable shoes.
The same goes for uncomfortable clothes, because even constricting underwear can be the reason of impaired circulation and appearance of varicose veins on the legs in women.
Varicose veins of the lower extremities is now considered a widespread disease, which often do not attach much importance.
It is important to remember that this inattention to the health of their feet can cost a person not only disability, but also life, while in the initial stages varicose veins quite successfully can be cured by the most simple methods.